The opinion has already become stereotyped that women have nothing to do in politics. It turns out that for hundreds of centuries women regularly came to power, sometimes exerting a significant influence on the fate of states.
It doesn't matter that politics is considered a game without rules, that the strongest survive here. But here are the names of those ladies who left the most significant mark in politics, skillfully showing themselves in government office.
Cleopatra. In 51 BC. Pharaoh Ptolemy XII died. By his will, power in the country passed to his daughter Cleopatra and her brother Ptolemy XIV. The boy at that time was only 9 years old, his sister immediately married him in order to have the right to reign. In history, Cleopatra remained as a beautiful, educated and intelligent woman. She managed to become a real legend. Cleopatra knew how to charm people, which helped her in the struggle for power. She managed to persuade Gaius Julius Caesar to return the throne to her, in return, giving the Roman her love. Soon, Caesar would be killed, and Cleopatra chose Mark Antony as her new patron and lover. This woman's love went alongside her power struggle. The calm reign was hampered by constant intrigues in her environment. Emperor Octavian persuaded Cleopatra to abdicate her throne, promising to preserve the rights of her children. However, the proud queen refused. Having played with her beloved against Rome, she lost the fight. Antony committed suicide, the inconsolable widow died from the bite of a snake brought to her by the servants. Several centuries have passed, but Cleopatra remains a legendary politician. The woman mixed her feelings and the attitudes of powerful powers, she fought for her throne and the freedom of her country, having failed. This made her image so tragic and memorable.
Princess Olga. This Grand Duchess (baptized Elena) ruled Kievan Rus after her husband, Prince Igor Rurikovich, died. Olga herself was either from the Pskov region, from an ignoble Varangian family, or from a rich Slavic family. The chronicle says that in 945, Prince Igor died, taking tribute from the Drevlyans. His son, Svyatoslav, at that time was only three years old. So Olga became the de facto ruler of Kievan Rus. She became famous for her cruelty. So, for the death of her husband, the princess took revenge on the Drevlyans as many as four times, by force suppressing any attempts to resist. Having come to power, Olga pursued a course to strengthen the power of Kiev among the Slavic tribes. The ruler laid the foundation for stone urban planning in Russia. In 947, the ruler replaced the old polyudye with the established tribute for the Drevlyans and Novgorodians - graveyards were created. Collectors stopped there and collected tribute. According to chronicles, in 957, Princess Olga was baptized in Constantinople. As a result, she is revered as a saint. After all, she was the first of the Russian rulers to adopt Christianity, even before the Baptism of Rus. The churchyards she created became the basis for the first churches. Olga died in 969 and was buried according to the Christian rite. The chronicles preserved her image as a forerunner of Christianity in Russia, she shone like the moon in the night among the pagans.
Queen Tamara. In 1178, at the age of 12, Tamara was crowned as co-ruler of her father, George III. The king had no heir and the situation in the country was heating up. After the death of the ruler, Tamara was crowned again, in 1184. First of all, the queen began to establish order in church life and in the government of the country. Officials and bishops who abused their position were dismissed, the plight of the peasants was eased, and duties were removed from the church. Tamara went down in history as a wise, beautiful woman. She was hardworking and religious. As her motto, the queen chose the words: "I am the father of the orphans and the judge of widows." She managed to bring peace inside the country, during her reign there was not a single case of corporal punishment or death penalty. Together with her husbands, Tamara led an active offensive foreign policy, winning wars. Having secured the domination of the country in Asia Minor, Tamara gathered at her court a circle of writers who developed the Georgian language. Contemporaries wrote laudatory odes about the queen, extolling her talents. After Tamara's death in 1209-1213, the local church canonized her.
Joan of Arc. This woman managed to become the national heroine of France, saving the country from conquest. The Maid of Orleans was born in 1412 in the village of Domrémie, in northeastern France. At the age of 13, the girl heard the voices of the saints, and then she saw them. They told Jeanne that she was destined to lift the siege from the city of Orleans, to enthrone the king and expel the invaders from the country. At the age of 17, she went to fulfill her destiny. The girl was able to convince the Dauphin that she was sent to him by heaven. As a result, Charles VII gave her troops and appointed her commander-in-chief. Jeanne D'Arc quickly defeated the British at Orleans, which seemed impossible. After a series of victories, Charles VII was crowned at Reims in the presence of the Maid of Orleans. The southwest of France was liberated from the invaders. The course of the Hundred Years War has finally changed. In 1430, Jeanne D'Arc was captured by the British. A fictitious court accused the girl of witchcraft and on May 30, 1431 she was burned at the stake. Despite her short life, Jeanne D'Arc has done a lot. Even her death did not help the British - France rallied and in 1453 finally expelled the invaders, ending the Hundred Years War. Subsequently, Jeanne D'Arc was officially acquitted, becoming one of the most significant characters in the history of the country.
Roksolana. Anastasia Lisovskaya was born in Rohatyn in 1506. Her fate was developing sadly and rather routinely until that time. The Tatars kidnapped the girl and sold the slave to the Turks. So Anastasia got into the harem of Prince Suleiman. In 1520 he ascended the throne, and the Sultan made him his beloved wife and even lived with her in a monogamous marriage, which was a unique case for the Ottoman dynasty. Roksolana got the name Alexandra Anastasia Lisowska, which means "cheerful". Through intrigue, she got rid of her rivals, in fact, becoming the co-ruler of the Sultan. Suleiman himself spent most of his time in military campaigns, the country was ruled by his wife, completely immersed in state affairs. Historians recall that Roksolana was the most educated person, she received ambassadors, answered letters to other rulers, and patronized the arts. The woman appeared in society with an open face, however, Islamic leaders considered her a devout Muslim. Thanks to Roksolana, new mosques appeared in Istanbul. The woman gave birth to 6 children to the Sultan, her son Selim, thanks to the intrigues of his mother, became the heir to the throne. Many novels have been written about Roksolana, television films have been made, plays have been staged and music has been written. A cunning woman politician managed to achieve unprecedented influence in a conservative state.
Queen Elizabeth. It so happened that the golden age in the history of England is associated precisely with a woman politician. Elizabeth became the last representative of the Tudor dynasty to the throne of the country. She was born in 1558, having been crowned at the age of 25. By that time, Elizabeth had decided never to marry, because the behavior of her father made the girl to treat men in a peculiar way. So she eventually went down in history as a virgin queen. Despite her detachment from the struggle for power, Elizabeth ascended the throne - the rest of the heirs died. At that time, it was a woman in her prime, who looked younger than her years and was not exhausted by numerous births and miscarriages. One of the first decrees of the new queen was the Uniformity Act, which reconciled Catholics and Protestants and helped to avoid civil war. Under Elizabeth, England finally became a great maritime power. With the Queen's blessing, English pirates plundered Spanish ships. England founded its first colony in North America. During the reign of Elizabeth, the Invincible Armada was defeated. The Queen has established close relations with Russia, this is the only woman with whom Ivan the Terrible corresponded. The East India Company was created by Elizabeth's decree, which helped colonize India and the eastern countries. The Queen patronized the arts, under her Bacon and Shakespeare worked, and the Royal Troupe was created. Elizabeth the First died in 1603, remaining the greatest ruler in the history of England.
Catherine the Great. Born Sophia Frederica Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst was born in 1729. At the age of 15, she was betrothed to the heir to the Russian throne, Pyotr Fedorovich, who was the nephew of Empress Elizaveta Petrovna. Despite her origins, Catherine actively opposed the pro-Prussian course of her husband, Emperor Peter III. In 1762, a coup d'état was carried out led by Catherine's lover, Count Orlov. Peter III was arrested and soon died. So his wife was proclaimed by the Empress Catherine II. She remained the greatest ruler in the history of the country. Thanks to this extraordinary woman, Russia has become a significant power. The country pursued a policy of enlightened absolutism. Catherine herself was an educated and intelligent woman, she corresponded with Voltaire, actively participated in all matters. Under this empress, the country received a million new citizens, parts of Poland, Lithuania, Crimea, Courland joined the country. Russia has finally established its influence in the Black Sea. The army has doubled, and government revenues have quadrupled. Domestic politics also played a significant role. So, private printing houses appeared in the country, the Academy of Russian Literature was founded in 1783, the first bookstore was opened, the population began to receive medical assistance. The country has grown culturally, science and national literature have made a sharp leap. Catherine II died in 1796. In 34 years in power, she managed to make Russia a great and influential power.
Indira Gandhi. This woman was born in 1917. She served as Prime Minister twice, in 1966-1977 and 1980-1984. This wise politician was called the conscience of the nation. Indira was the only daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, the leader of the nation and the country's first prime minister. After her father's death, Indira entered parliament from his party, the Indian National Congress. After the death of Lala Shastri, the country's second prime minister, Indira Gandhi leads the party and becomes the head of state. After the split in the INC, the woman led the independent party, winning the elections in 1971 under the slogan of fighting poverty. During the years of Indira Gandhi's reign, she pursued a course of rapprochement with the USSR, banks were nationalized, industry developed at an accelerated pace. The first nuclear power plant was launched in the state of Maharashta. In agriculture, under Gandhi, a "green revolution" took place - the country got rid of the need to buy food. Thanks to the woman politician, the intensity of inter-religious conflicts decreased, but she also had to resort to unpopular measures - pressure on the opposition, forced sterilization of the population. Due to a political scandal, Indira lost power, soon returning to her post. The Prime Minister's second term was overshadowed by her confrontation with the Sikh people. They managed to take revenge on their offender - on October 31, 1984, Indira Gandhi was killed by her own bodyguards.
Margaret Thatcher. This man has become a classic woman politician, serving as an ideal for many. Margaret was born in 1925. She was educated as a chemist and later as a lawyer. At 34, a woman gets into parliament, and in 1970 she receives the post of Minister of Education and Science. In 1975, Thatcher became the leader of the Conservative Party, this is the first time in the history of the country that one of the main parties was led by a woman. After winning the elections in 1979, Thatcher became prime minister. In her post, the woman faced many problems. She believed that Britain was in decline. So, in the social sphere, in health care and education, there was a clear division into people of the first and second class. The voters did not appreciate the increase in unemployment with a stagnant economy, but in 1982 the country waged a victorious war in the Falklands. Economic growth allowed Thatcher to be re-elected in 1983 and 1987. However, the tough tax policy and views on England's place in the European Union did not find understanding in their own party. As a result, in 1990, Margaret Thatcher left her post. Her tough line on the European Union has brought Britain to the brink of international isolation. After all, Thatcher was characterized by an authoritarian style that did not correspond in any way to the classic artful and quirky British diplomacy. However, the manner of doing business of the iron lady is still envied today, trying to imitate. Margaret Thatcher sharply criticized the Soviet regime, implementing a series of conservative measures that became part of her policy, "Thatcherism". A classic manifestation of her character was the miners' strike in 1984-1985. Thatcher foresaw this situation, preparing for it. Coal reserves were accumulated, and a possible import of fuel into the country was prepared. When the strike began, the authorities held a firm position. 11 million British trade unionists hated the prime minister for not wanting to negotiate. However, the iron lady did not flinch, and the strikers were forced to return to work.
Benazir Bhutto. This woman is the latest and classic example of how difficult it is for ladies in modern and "masculine" politics. She managed to become the first head of government of a conservative Muslim country in modern history. Benazir was born in Karachi in 1953, from childhood she was given freedom unthinkable for Pakistan - she was allowed not to wear a veil, she was given the opportunity to get a good education. Benazir returned from America to the country in 1977, her father by that time had managed to be both president and prime minister. It was planned that the woman would become a diplomat, but she decided to help her father in his political career. During the coup, the family was arrested. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was executed, while Benazir herself went into exile. In 1988, the People's Party of Pakistan, led by Bhutto, won the victory, she herself became prime minister, largely due to the popularity of her father in the country. The prime minister was able to increase spending on health care and education, but during the scandal with bribes from her husband, the finance minister, she was forced to leave her post. In 1993, Benazir Bhutto won the election again. The woman promised to defeat corruption and poverty. And again the situation repeated itself. Illiteracy was reduced by a third, polio was finally defeated, water and electricity appeared in the villages. Investment increased many times, the country's economy grew rapidly. In 1996, the woman was named the most popular politician of the year, and she was awarded an honorary doctorate from Oxford. However, corruption flourished in the country even more. After retirement and emigration, Benazir Bhutto returned to Pakistan.She was unafraid of threats from al-Qaeda and Taliban radicals to kill her. In December 2007, two attempts were made on the brave woman, the second was fatal. The assassination of the former prime minister shocked the world community. Even the UN Security Council adopted a special resolution condemning the murder of a prominent politician.