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Advertising (from Lat. Reclamo - shouting out) is the promotion of ideas, goods and services, designed to increase their attractiveness to consumers. It is, along with public relations (PR), the main form of marketing.

The earliest form of advertising was loud shouting, which sellers used to entice buyers to tout their wares.

There are three main functions of advertising:

informative - a message about the existence of a product, familiarization with its main properties, parameters, features; information where and at what time the goods are sold;

psychological - the impact on feelings of self-esteem, considerations of prestige, views and preferences of consumers;

stimulating - a reminder, an incentive to buy.

Depending on what are the general goals of advertising, there are two main types of it:

prestigious advertising - forms the image of the product and the image of the company;

commercial advertising - stimulates sales, accelerates turnover and helps to find profitable partners.

Advertising myths

The effect of advertising lasts for several decades. It is a common misconception that some long-lived brands "survive" for so long because they advertise a lot and constantly. But the fact is that any product can stay on the market for a long time due to its quality, and competent advertising only helps to interest new buyers. In addition, despite the belief that ad effects last for a long time, research shows that it is measured in weeks, days, sometimes even hours. And although people often memorize slogans and melodies after years, this does not mean at all that these memories will turn into purchases.

The repeated repetition of advertising will sooner or later lead to success. In fact, advertising either works immediately or never works. Companies often persist in showing ineffective ads. They can do this for a variety of reasons, including a lack of testing, fear of downsizing and growing competitive pressure. Also, ad managers can increase the frequency and duration of its display in order to use the money allocated for the ad campaign that has not yet been spent, so that they do not cut their budget for the next year. And the managers themselves, unfortunately, do not always know how effective their campaign is.

It takes three impressions for an ad to have an effect. There is an opinion that the optimal number of ad impressions is three, the effectiveness of the subsequent ones decreases every time. From the point of view of G. Krugman, the first viewing only attracts attention, the second - arouses interest in the product, and the third, the last, directly pushes to purchase. But, nevertheless, there are many examples, and when one impression was quite enough, and when it took much more than three impressions for success.

A unique creative solution guarantees success. Many advertisers and advertising agencies believe that in order to attract the attention of the audience, an advertisement must be absolutely unique. There is no scientifically proven relationship between the uniqueness of the message and the sales of the advertised product. A creative fresh idea is more likely to drive sales than just an increase in ad impressions. But novelty and uniqueness by themselves do not guarantee high results.

Clear logical arguments are the most effective advertising. Three things in advertising attract the most attention: argument, emotion, and approval. Of course, most of the time consumers make decisions by comparing the characteristics and merits of competing brands. But despite this, emotions can be the most attractive. Emotional appeal is best made into consciousness; it requires less concentration than other forms and is usually best remembered.

Nowadays, advertising aimed at the subconscious is often used. This misconception is probably caused either by suspicion and distrust of big business, or by a lack of knowledge regarding the term "subconscious." In any case, this practice is illegal. Subconscious advertising was banned back in 1974.

Humor in advertising prevents you from focusing on the message. In fact, a well-done funny advertisement has a number of advantages: it relaxes viewers, opens their minds to the message, distracts people from counterarguments, and finally, just cheers up. However, overuse of humor can really get in the way of receiving a message.

Sex in advertising is a very effective technique. Quite a controversial statement. Undoubtedly, an advertisement filled with sex will attract attention, but not always positive, and not always specifically to the advertised product. In this case, the desired result will not be achieved.

Various needs arise through advertising. The statement is incorrect. Advertising by itself does not create a need; it is another matter that it can be used to satisfy an already existing need. Take the popular iPods, for example. Of course, before the advertising campaign, people didn't know they wanted portable music until it became available to them. But does this mean that the need was formed under the influence of advertising? Of course not.

Advertising is profitable. It is widely believed that with the money spent on advertising, it generates very high revenues, otherwise companies would not be spending such amounts on it. In reality, the high level of costs is only a reflection of the continuation of past practices.