Hypertension (primary hypertension) is an independent chronic disease. There is also secondary hypertension, which is a symptom of some other disease, that is, has no connection with hypertension.
The main symptom of hypertension is high blood pressure, but there are other symptoms that differ depending on the degree of hypertension. There are three degrees of hypertension - mild, moderate and severe.
Hypertension is a disease in which it is important to follow absolutely all the doctor's recommendations and not to stop treatment if you feel better, since otherwise there is a high probability of developing a hypertensive crisis. A hypertensive crisis has three types, but all of them are characterized by an increase in blood pressure to a level exceeding the increase in pressure during periodically arising exacerbations of hypertension.
Factors that increase the risk of developing hypertension include: malfunctioning of the brain, excessive consumption of table salt, renal factor, bad habits, improper lifestyle, hereditary factor.
The words hypertension and hypertension are synonymous. Indeed, these words are used to refer to the same disease.
There are two types of hypertension. We are talking about primary hypertension and secondary. Primary hypertension is associated with increased blood pressure, which is caused only by hypertension. Primary hypertension is more common than secondary hypertension. Secondary hypertension occurs in only 5% of hypertensive cases. It has no relationship with hypertension. Secondary hypertension is due to other causes. Often, secondary hypertension is a kind of symptom indicating damage to the vessels of the kidneys and ongoing inflammation in these organs.
Primary hypertension is hypertension. It is under this name that primary hypertension (or essential) is known to the general mass of the population. Saying the word "hypertension" also means that we are talking about primary hypertension.
Hypertension is an independent disease. That is, hypertension is not a manifestation of any other disease, as, for example, in the case of secondary hypertension. In addition, hypertension is a chronic disease.
The main symptom of hypertension is high blood pressure. The increase in blood pressure occurs constantly. This disease is chronic. The reason for this increase in blood pressure is associated with a violation of the regulation of blood pressure. The manifestations of hypertension are in no way associated with the consequences of other diseases of the body.
Hypertension is a widespread disease. This is especially true for the population of industrialized countries. Increasingly, in modern society, hypertension develops already in adolescence.
"All diseases are from the nerves" - a judgment ideally suited to hypertension. If we draw up a kind of chain of stages in the development of primary hypertension, then the first link that has an initial effect on the development of hypertension will be emotional experience. The human body reacts to many emotional upheavals by increasing blood pressure.
However, a person who is prone to developing primary hypertension may have a deep reaction from the cardiovascular system (in this case, it manifests itself as a noticeable increase in blood pressure) even for a seemingly frivolous cause.
It is worth noting that if a person is healthy, but has experienced a rather strong emotional experience, in connection with which his blood pressure has increased, then the latter will quickly return to normal. However, the same cannot be said for a person who develops primary hypertension. A sick person, having experienced another stress, thereby deepens his illness, and the reaction from the cardiovascular system becomes more and more long. Thus, over time, high blood pressure will be regarded by the human body as a normal state and maintained by it; humoral mechanisms contribute to the consolidation of this state. Hypertension becomes chronic, changes also occur in the symptoms of primary hypertension. If at the initial stage of the development of hypertension, the increase in pressure was unstable, pain in the heart and headaches did not appear so often, then during the transition of the disease to a chronic form, high blood pressure occurs almost constantly, that is, we can talk about its persistent nature. In addition, among other symptoms of chronic hypertension, the following are: recurrent dizziness, rapid fatigue and poor sleep, numbness in the fingers and toes.
There are three degrees of hypertension. We are talking about mild, moderate and severe degrees - this classification was proposed by cardiologists at the 2003 annual convention. Let's consider each of them. A mild degree of hypertension, it is also the first degree, has symptoms that can be easily confused with the manifestations of a cold or overwork.
As for blood pressure, it is at the level of 140-159 / 90-99 mm Hg. Art. This degree is also called the "mild" form, but it must be taken as seriously as severe hypertension. A moderate degree of hypertension, it is also the second degree, is characterized by the following symptoms. Blood pressure is on average 160-179 / 100-109 mm Hg. Art, that is, we can talk about a more significant increase than in the case of the first degree.
A moderate degree of hypertension is characterized by the following symptoms - dizziness and severe headaches, pain in the heart, worsening sleep and working capacity, sometimes nosebleeds occur, the functioning of the nervous and cardiovascular systems, kidneys worsens. The risk of developing a stroke cannot be excluded in the case of the second degree of hypertension.
Severe hypertension, or third degree, is characterized by more serious symptoms. In this case, the blood pressure exceeds 180/110 mm Hg. Severe hypertension poses a threat to the patient's life and a serious risk of angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and stroke. The third degree of hypertension leads to the development of renal failure. In this case, there are irreversible changes in the activity of the heart.
The first degree of hypertension is the most common. She worries about 70% of patients. People with mild hypertension have a much higher risk of stroke (about two to four times) than healthy people.
Hypertension can be treated at home. Many people think so, and do not go to a specialist. As a result, further development of hypertension and complications. Under the supervision of a cardiologist, elimination of symptoms and even recovery can be successfully achieved with mild hypertension. This is true, of course, if all the doctor's recommendations are followed. The latter, in that force, include maintaining a certain diet and normalizing lifestyle.
Normalization of blood pressure at a moderate stage of hypertension is a more difficult task to achieve it, the patient must take drugs prescribed by a cardiologist. Medical intervention for severe hypertension is a necessary condition.
A hypertensive crisis can occur with any degree of hypertension. Especially if there is no appropriate treatment and the recommendations of a specialist are not followed. A hypertensive crisis can also occur in a situation where the patient, feeling much better, ceases to follow the doctor's recommendations.
A hypertensive crisis is characterized by a significant increase in blood pressure. Often, with a hypertensive crisis, dizziness and headaches, chest pains occur. The latter can be given under the shoulder blade and in the hand. During a hypertensive crisis, the patient may even lose consciousness for a while. Sometimes patients have impaired speech and limb mobility. Hypertensive crises can occur one after another at short intervals.
There are three types of hypertensive crisis. These are neurovegetative hypertensive crisis, edematous hypertensive crisis and convulsive crisis. Each of these varieties is characterized by certain symptoms.
With a neurovegetative hypertensive crisis, a person falls into a state of anxiety and overexcitation. The patient appears to be frightened by something. With this form of hypertensive crisis, a slight rise in temperature is possible. Damp skin and tremors in the hands also characterize the neurovegetative hypertensive crisis. As for blood pressure, it is significant (mainly the upper, systolic, pressure rises), and the patient also develops tachycardia.
With edematous hypertensive crisis, swelling of the hands and face is clearly expressed. Most often, such a hypertensive crisis occurs in women who have been diagnosed with hypertension. Directly provoking such a hypertensive crisis is the use of large amounts of salty food or liquid. Specific signs of edematous hypertensive crisis include lethargy and drowsiness, an increase in both upper and lower pressure. The lower pressure is called diastolic.
Convulsive crisis occurs much less frequently than edematous and neurovegetative hypertensive crises. However, its manifestations are very dangerous. Convulsive crisis is the most severe condition of the body, which is caused by brain damage when it comes to the malignant course of hypertension. A clear sign of a convulsive hypertensive crisis is convulsions, sometimes cerebral hemorrhage occurs (as a complication).
Summing up, it can be argued that a common phenomenon in any hypertensive crisis is an increase in blood pressure - it is higher than with periodically appearing exacerbations of hypertension.
Malignant hypertension is the most serious form of the disease. Most often it occurs with secondary hypertension. In this case, the lower (diastolic) pressure is more than 130 mm Hg. This form of hypertension is more common in people between the ages of 20 and 40. Malignant hypertension progresses rather quickly, its development is rapid (unlike other forms of hypertension) - the pressure can even be 250/140 and higher. Signs of malignant hypertension are severe headaches, blurred vision, seizures, and drowsiness. Headaches are often accompanied by vomiting. If loss of consciousness occurs, then the risk of stroke is high.
This form of hypertension leads to serious changes in the renal vessels. However, if you consult a doctor in time, it is quite possible to cope with this disease.
Hypertension can be due to many reasons. There are many reasons for the occurrence of hypertension. Among other factors in the development of primary hypertension, one can single out malfunctions in the work of the brain. As a result of such failures, the normal functioning of the higher parts of the central nervous system is disrupted. The brain regulates the activity of the whole organism, including, of course, the work of the heart. In this regard, it can be argued that prolonged excitement, constant nervous shocks and overstrain can lead to the development of hypertension.
It should be understood that hypertension can appear as a result of intellectual activity at night, because the body needs rest.
Among other reasons for the development of hypertension, one can single out excessive consumption of table salt; there is even a special model of salt hypertension. Research conducted by scientists in China, Japan and the Bahamas has shown the following relationship: a person who consumes more than five grams of salt per day has a much greater risk of developing hypertension than a person who consumes less than five grams of salt daily.
The likelihood of developing hypertension increases if there is a hereditary factor, therefore, if close relatives are diagnosed with hypertension, then you need to pay as much attention as possible to your health.
The development of hypertension can be influenced by the renal factor, it is known that the kidneys are capable of both lowering and increasing pressure. In this regard, if a person is diagnosed with hypertension, he must definitely check the kidneys. Perhaps it was the malfunctioning of the kidneys that caused the development of hypertension. The proper functioning of the adrenal glands is also very important, as malfunctions in their work can lead to persistent hypertension.
As you know, women are more susceptible to hypertension than men. In women, the risk of developing this disease increases markedly during menopause, which depends on the hormonal imbalance in the female body.
Naturally, the negative factors contributing to the development of hypertension are bad habits and an unhealthy lifestyle.
The diagnosis of hypertension should be based on many data. Diagnosis of primary hypertension includes clinical data, anamnesis data, data from instrumental research methods. The latter are of great importance in diagnostics.
X-ray examination of the heart shows that in the initial stages of the development of hypertensive disease, no strong changes occur, however, as the disease progresses, signs of left ventricular hypertrophy, a change in the configuration of the aorta and signs of aortic atherosclerosis appear.
Echocardiography in the initial stages of hypertension shows, in particular, an increase in the rate of contraction of the walls of the left ventricle of the heart; as the disease progresses, signs of myocardial hypertrophy and a decrease in the contractility of the left ventricle of the heart can be detected.
The initial stage of diagnosis is the examination of the patient by a cardiologist, while it seems quite enough to record the high blood pressure twice at the appointment with a specialist.
The next step is to exclude the possibility of developing secondary hypertension. If a secondary nature is excluded, then we can confidently talk about hypertension, and the set of studies required for conducting research (except for the diagnostic minimum) is compiled by the doctor individually for each patient.
The diagnostic minimum in the case of hypertension includes an ECG, biochemical blood test, general urine analysis, examination of the vessels of the fundus.The latter is very important - ophthalmoscopically, in the fundus of the eye in the early stages of the development of hypertension, varicose veins, tortuosity of the retinal arteries and their narrowing are observed, as hypertension develops, small hemorrhages may occur. In the later stages of hypertension, degenerative foci appear on the retina - white spots. In severe cases of hypertension, even atrophy of the optic nerve, retinal detachment - up to loss of vision is possible.
Hypertension is much easier to prevent than to cure. Hypertension, like any other chronic disease, is not easily treated. That is why the prevention of this disease is important, especially among young people who complain of a periodic increase in blood pressure.
To prevent hypertension, firstly, you need to find out about the incidence of hypertension among the closest relatives, and secondly, pay close attention to your lifestyle and compare it with the correct one. As for the way of life, you need to devote as much time as possible to physical activity (but you should not do it excessively), eat right (but not be supported by, so to speak, "fashionable" diets that have spread among the population) - this should be a complete varied diet (preferably not with a very large amount of salt), getting rid of bad habits, creating a favorable atmosphere in the house. As for the latter, it is worth noting that happy people rarely get sick with hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases (and indeed rarely get sick).