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Lighting

Lighting

The invention of electricity made it possible for humans to light their homes. This made the home much more comfortable, and allowed to normalize the working day.

For ordinary users today, lighting problems are often far-fetched. The profession of electrical engineers is considered something useless. Sometimes it seems that they are needed only for "screwing in light bulbs".

And what can be difficult in the design of a cartridge, a pear-shaped lamp and a lampshade? Counting the number of necessary lamps, many entrust themselves.

However, this approach can be justified by those who do not care too much about the full improvement of their home. But often this point of view is transferred to more serious objects - restaurants, shops, and even entire buildings.

As a result, the most deplorable results, from inadequate lighting to the environment, to the emergence of situations in general dangerous for human life. Summarizing the experience of working with clients of lighting companies, we will reveal the most common misconceptions they have.

A lighting system is best designed to be as simple as possible. It is better to refuse various transformers and other complex devices. Indeed, everything ingenious is simple, it would be foolish to dispute it. One has only to note that the opposite rule applies in this matter, everything simple is brilliant, which is already very doubtful. It can be said without error that almost all modern light sources designed for direct connection to the electrical network are inferior to those lamps that require additional equipment. And this applies to all parameters - the richness of the assortment, color efficiency, service time and even the cost of the life cycle. Often, even the starting price is not a winning one. For a professional in the field of lighting, it is clear that such a rejection of related devices is akin to a rejection of computers in design for the sake of whatman and drawing board - after all, they are so simple and time-tested.

An energy-saving light bulb that costs 50 times more than a regular light bulb must last 50 times longer to pay for itself. In this matter, we turn to the concept of the cost of the lamp life cycle. It is this criterion that should be taken into account by the thrifty lighting owner. It consists of the cost of all costs during the operation of the lamp and the price of the lamp itself. Let's calculate the cycle of a conventional fluorescent lamp. If we consider the price per kilowatt in a conditional ruble, and the power is 11 watts and for a short service life of 5000 hours, then a lamp with a price of 250 rubles will cost the owner in the end 250 + 0.011 * 5000 * 1 = 305 rubles. An ordinary 60-watt incandescent lamp with a similar luminous flux level, with a service life of 1000 hours and a price of 5 rubles will cost 5 * 0.06 * 1000 * 1 = 65 rubles. The difference in price is almost 5 times, that is, during the same period, an economical lamp will replace 5 conventional ones. In addition, if the lamp is not alone, but there are hundreds of them, moreover, in hard-to-reach places ... It is not difficult to calculate that the price of replacing it will be added to the price of each lamp, here the difference can be manifested in full. If replacing a lamp in a chandelier will cost 20 rubles (and this should include the costs of installing stairs, insurance, salary, etc.), then only one lamp will save 30% (325 and 425 rubles). As you can see, even a fivefold difference in lamp life more than pays for a 50x difference in price.

Leaving the room, you must certainly turn off the light - this will save money. And this myth can be debunked by economic calculations, while applying technical considerations. First, you need to separate the concepts of "saving money" and "saving electricity". Without a doubt, by constantly switching off and on again lamps, we save energy. But after all, a frequent violation of a stable state is harmful for the lamp itself. Let's use the numbers from the previous example. Suppose that, due to reasonable energy consumption, the lamp has operated for 2500 hours instead of 5000 continuous burning. The saved energy will give the budget 0.011 * 2500 * 1 = 27.5 rubles. However, there is a possibility that after the same hours of operation, the lamp will fail, thanks to sparking switches, impulsiveness of pressing them and other unpleasant surprises in our power grid. If you subtract the cost of a new lamp from the saved amount, you get a net loss of 222.5 rubles. 10 months of continuous savings will make it possible to recoup 1 lamp, and the risk is quite high! That is why in European cities, and eventually in Moscow, they refused to turn off some street lamps at night - such savings can be too expensive.

If the "protected" icon is on the luminaire, there is no threat of electric shock from it. First of all, let's understand the terms. The luminaire can be protected from three types of impact - from moisture, dust and mechanical stress. They are indicated in catalogs and price lists. The protection of the outside world from this lamp is evidenced by such criteria as explosion and fire safety. These also include three classes (first, second and third) of electrical safety, which will be able to answer our question. The user most often thinks that if the luminaire has a sealed housing, then this is already a guarantee of electrical safety. However, this is a mistake - rubber seals protect only the lamp itself, but not the person. A sealed luminaire may well belong to the first safety class, which requires a grounding conductor, or that may not be in place. Then there is the risk of electric shock. The highest degree of protection of a person can be given only by luminaires of the third class, which are powered from a deliberately low voltage of 12 volts, or even less. It is these lamps that are recommended for saunas and bathrooms, where even damp walls can act as a good conductor of current.

Low voltage in the network will only make the lamp last longer. This thinking comes from the practice of working with ordinary incandescent lamps, for them it is really true. In them, the tungsten coil heats up less, therefore, it lasts longer. But modern lamps use a different principle to produce light. Even the closest relatives of the classic A60 lamp, incandescent halogen lamps, require a constant temperature of their coil for their work. When the voltage decreases, it decreases, breaking the so-called "halogen" cycle, which restores the filament. As a result, the lamp life can be reduced by almost 2 times. Modern electronic ballasts largely adhere to the principle of maintaining a constant lamp power, which forces them to increase the operating current when the mains voltage decreases. In this case, their overload with subsequent failure is possible. For high-power discharge lamps, with a decrease in the mains voltage, the time of their ignition increases, which leads to sputtering of the electrodes. The luminous flux in all lamps without exception will decrease disproportionately. So the standards for the upper and lower voltage thresholds in the network do not exist in vain.

In lamps, capacitors are not needed at all. And without them, this technique works great, why pay extra money? This logic is characteristic only of those in whose hands the switches have never melted. Luminaires with discharge lamps have the property of consuming several times more current without capacitors than with them. In this case, the power according to the meter remains unchanged. All this leads to overloads in the network and a possible burnout of the switch, and in the literal sense. Even if he should, at first glance, work with lamps of such power. Thus, by saving a little on capacitors, you can incur quite tangible losses, not only economic ones.

In a lamp powered from a 220 volt network, there can be no higher voltage. This statement is quite dangerous, as it can lead to electrical injury. First of all, it is worth mentioning gas light installations, some of which have a compact design especially for rooms. They have step-up transformers with an operating voltage of up to 10 thousand volts. We can also mention igniting devices for metal halide and sodium lamps with voltages up to 4 thousand volts, while conventional starters for fluorescent lamps have an ignition voltage of 25-400 volts. Naturally, in each of the cases mentioned, special insulation is used. The dangerous list also includes the aforementioned capacitors from fluorescent lamps, on which a voltage of 300-400 volts is possible during operation. It is worth saying that the charge accumulated by them can persist for quite a long time, so that even a faulty and turned off lamp can shock.

You can make yourself a "perpetual lamp" circuit, in which an infinitely long operation of a fluorescent lamp is possible. Many people believe that such a design can burn forever, therefore, wisdom like ballasts, starters, etc. is not needed. Yes, the passion for free is ineradicable. First of all, it is assumed that such a lamp will operate on direct current, which means that the glow will fade at one end of the lamp, and concentrate at the other. This effect is called cataphoresis. Also, illiterate electricians advise in series with the lamp to turn on an incandescent lamp, or even a powerful resistor, which is even more illiterate. As a result, at least half of the electricity will be spent on heating this ballast, so originally adapted. While such a circuit does, in general, help ignite burned out lamps, their lifespan is still not infinite. After all, sooner or later the moment will come when the metal components of the electrodes inside it will finally be sprayed all the same. And it will be pretty soon. So you should not chase after unconventional methods of switching on electrical appliances, it is much easier to use time-tested reliable developments.

Lighting technicians should have calculated uniform lighting rates per unit area long ago. It was then that no complicated programs were required. The situation with lighting standards is not so simple, which gives rise to such a myth. I would like to put this statement next to the question "What kind of illumination does this particular lamp give in general?" The thing is that the illumination depends not only on the lamp that creates it, but also on several other factors - the location of the lamp, the distance to it, the presence of reflective areas, etc. These factors, in addition to the type of lamp and the specified illumination, just affect the required number of lamps in the room. Even for rooms of the same size, the number of light points can vary markedly. This can be influenced by different colors of floor and wall finishes. Therefore, the most correct calculation can be made only on an individual basis using a computer. Haters of computing technology can make themselves many hours of complex calculations using a calculator.

City and federal lighting regulations are not needed at all. The rules should be established by the customer, who pays for the equipment. Following such a thought, one can generally slide into the Stone Age, when the inhabitants of each cave lit it to their taste and manner, and if they so desired, they were completely in the dark. A person has objective physiological requirements for lighting, and if they are not observed, then this can have a negative impact on health. First of all, vision suffers. Simply put, mandatory standards indicate not only the amount of light, its brightness and illumination, but also its quality. As a result, the creators and owners of lighting systems will not be able to worsen our health with their illiterate lighting. It is compliance with the norms, and not their violation, that makes it possible for the developer to feel responsibility to the customer. The customer still has freedom of choice. So, in accordance with his financial capabilities, he may well create conditions significantly better than the minimum. After all, it is not the deviation from the norm itself that is considered a violation, but only that which leads to a deterioration in lighting conditions. When it comes to residential premises, the recommendations are generally advisory in nature, since the residents themselves are responsible for their own well-being.

Lighting problems can be solved on their own. Many, faced with such a problem, try to solve the issue on their own. For some, working with light bulbs seems easy, while others are trying to save money. However, this approach is as ridiculous as creating a TV or other technological things on your own. You should not come up with complex and risky schemes, for sure there are several lighting companies in your city, in which professionals were able to resolve all issues with lighting.


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