Information

Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis is a group of diseases associated with inflammation of the pancreas. They begin to act in the pancreas itself.

Pancreatitis can lead to serious complications, which in particular can be associated with the ingestion of pancreatic enzymes and toxins into the bloodstream.

The following types of this disease are distinguished: chronic, acute and reactive pancreatitis. The clinic of different types of pancreatitis differs.

Acute pancreatitis requires immediate treatment, and surgical intervention is often required. Gallstone disease, alcohol abuse and overeating, especially the combination of the above, can lead to pancreatitis.

Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. It develops as a result of the action of enzymes of the pancreas on the tissue of this organ. In very simple terms, the pancreas begins to digest itself.

Pancreatitis develops due to the consumption of fatty foods. Of course, not every person. This is the first thing. And secondly, this statement concerns the excessive consumption of fatty, spicy and fried foods, which entails a violation of the normal functioning of the organ. Alcohol poisoning, overeating and neuropsychic overexcitation have a negative effect on the pancreas. All this contributes to the intensive production of pancreatic juice by the pancreas.

Pancreatitis mainly affects men. Invalid statement. The risk of developing pancreatitis is highest in men who often abuse alcohol and tend to overeat, as well as in women during pregnancy and some time after childbirth.

The attack is associated with the inability to get pancreatic juice into the duodenum. Partly true. Indeed, in the case when the damaged ducts of the gland cannot drain the juice, it enters the tissues of the organ itself. This causes inflammation. However, an attack can be associated with prolonged use of hormonal drugs, peptic ulcer disease, diseases of the bile ducts and gallbladder, as well as cirrhosis of the liver and gallstone disease. An attack may well provoke some kind of physical injury to the abdomen.

If there is an attack of pancreatitis, then urgent hospitalization is necessary. You can't joke with this disease, that's for sure. An attack can provoke necrosis of any part of the pancreas, as well as some other complications. Serious cases of the disease can lead to low blood pressure, dehydration, and loss of consciousness. With pancreatitis, the normal functioning of the heart, lungs, and kidneys is at risk.

Pain with pancreatitis has no clear localization. However, it is pain in the abdomen that is considered the main symptom of the disease. Where it is localized depends on the place of inflammation of the pancreas: with inflammation of the head of this organ, pain in the right hypochondrium, with inflammation of the body of the pancreas, pain is localized in the epigastric region, with inflammation of the tail of the organ, pain in the left hypochondrium. When the entire pancreas is inflamed, the pain has a girdle character. But pain is not the only symptom of pancreatitis. Often with inflammation of the pancreas, there is an aversion to fatty foods, and indeed a loss of appetite. With pancreatitis, belching, increased salivation, severe bouts of nausea, and bloating are common.

Acute pancreatitis is diagnosed with a blood test. The content of lipase and amylase (these are actually digestive enzymes formed in the pancreas), which are part of the blood, in acute pancreatitis is increased by more than 3 times. The content of potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, glucose, bicarbonate also changes in the blood. After improving the condition and functioning of the pancreas, the indicators of these substances return to normal.

Pancreatitis is classified as chronic, acute, and reactive. With the first type of pancreatitis, inflammation of the organ tissue progresses gradually. This process (rather slow) is characterized by dysfunction of the pancreas. Chronic pancreatitis is associated with the presence in the organ of small areas of necrosis (tissue decay), which runs parallel to the growth of connective tissue. Over time, the organ tissue becomes scarred. fabrics. The latter replaces the tissue of the pancreas. Periods of exacerbation in chronic pancreatitis alternate with remission.
For acute pancreatitis, inflammation of the organ tissue is characteristic, followed by decay. This disease can be presented in the form of acute inflammation of the entire pancreas or part of it. Necrosis (decay) of tissue sometimes occurs with hemorrhage, suppuration, or with the formation of abscesses. The third type of pancreatitis - reactive - is an attack of acute pancreatitis. It occurs with exacerbation of diseases of the duodenum or stomach, liver or gallbladder.

Pancreatitis is treated with surgery. Not always. Surgical intervention becomes necessary, for example, with ineffective therapeutic treatment of pancreatitis for three to five years. Another reason is the rather common pain in the upper abdomen. The pain is mainly related to the girdle and radiates to the back. In any case, all patients with acute pancreatitis or with suspicion of this disease are delivered to the surgical departments of hospitals, and on an emergency basis. The efforts of doctors are primarily aimed at eliminating pain shock.

Acute pancreatitis can only be treated with surgery. This is absolutely wrong. In recent years, conservative methods have been increasingly used to treat this disease. These include the introduction into the blood of the necessary solutions that help relieve pain syndrome (antispasmodics are always prescribed to reduce pain) and normalize acid-base balance. Heart medications are prescribed to keep the heart functioning normally. With pancreatitis, vitamins C and B have a good effect on the body, in particular, they are necessary for the normalization of metabolic processes in the body. Diuretics are necessary in order to remove some of the decay products from the patient's body, and also to relieve swelling in the area of ​​the organ. And one more thing: since the cause of pancreatitis is associated with the effect of enzymes produced by the pancreas on it itself, it is mandatory in treatment to prescribe drugs that to some extent can suppress the production of enzymes by this organ.
In general, if conservative treatment, lasting about fourteen days, is ineffective, then the patient needs surgical treatment. This need may also be caused by any complications of the disease.

Surgery for pancreatitis can lead to serious postoperative complications. The latter include the appearance of cysts and fistulas of the pancreas, calculus and calcitosis of this organ, impaired patency of the gastrointestinal tract (gastrointestinal tract), and obstructive jaundice.

Fasting is the main cure for pancreatitis. Indeed, proper nutrition plays a significant role in the treatment of this disease, or at least in maintaining the normal functioning of the pancreas. It should be understood that for quite a long time (preferably for the rest of your life), you must completely exclude fatty, fried and spicy foods, smoked foods, sour juices, various degrees, and alcohol from the diet. The reason for this is simple: a person, once sick with pancreatitis, is not protected from the return of the disease after a certain lull. Dieting is actually necessary in order to avoid the situation when surgery will be necessary.
But diet still does not play the only role in the treatment of pancreatitis. Traditional medicine also attaches great importance to antibiotic therapy, prescribing enzyme preparations, and relieving pain.
It should be understood that all of the above is rare, when it can lead to a complete cure for pancreatitis. The fact is that it is not always able to restore the structure of the pancreas and the functions of this organ.
Very often there are phenomena associated with the shutdown of the pancreas itself due to the prescribed drugs. There is always a chance that when the appropriate drugs are canceled, the problems will return again.

People with chronic pancreatitis lose weight. Not all, but this phenomenon is frequent. Even in cases where the preferences of people with this form of the disease and their appetite remain the same. The fact is that weight loss is associated precisely with dysfunction of the pancreas. In this case, the human body cannot absorb the amount of pancreatic enzymes that is necessary to digest the incoming food. This leads to the fact that nutrients are not absorbed by the body properly (as in a healthy person). This situation leads to the formation of fat, sugar and protein. They are excreted from the human body in the form of loose stools.

Pancreatitis leads to the development of diabetes mellitus. This happens when the cells of the pancreas, which are responsible for the production of the biologically active substance insulin, are damaged. There is indeed a connection between chronic pancreatitis and diabetes mellitus. One disease provokes the development of another. For example, 20-70% of patients with diabetes mellitus develop chronic pancreatitis. This is due to a decrease in the exocrine part of the pancreas (this is the part of the organ that is responsible for the production of enzymes), the development of chronic organ ischemia and some other reasons.
Feedback also exists. 20-30% of people with chronic pancreatitis are sick with diabetes mellitus, which in this case is pancreatogenic. The reason for this connection is that, in addition to the exocrine part of the pancreas, the endocrine part of this organ is also affected (the endocrine part of the pancreas is responsible for the secretion of hormones) - the islets of Langerhans (or pancreatic islets).

Children rarely get pancreatitis. It's true. The chronic form of the disease is rare in children. If the child is nevertheless diagnosed with pancreatitis, then the cause of this disease can be either an injury to the pancreas or heredity. Very often the cause is unknown.


Watch the video: Acute Pancreatitis - Overview signs and symptoms, pathophysiology, investigations, treatment (October 2021).