Much attention is paid to education today. That is why it is so important to debunk mistaken thoughts about special schools.
Elite school means closed. Many believe that an ordinary person will never get into such an educational institution, because only special children study there, the same relatives of the teachers themselves. In fact, schools for the smart are available for all children who meet special requirements. And usually these are not financial criteria at all. Schools need those who have an increased thirst for knowledge, non-standard thinking children who are able to withstand a large intellectual load. The teachers themselves are interested in ensuring that the status of the parents and their money do not in any way affect the child's ability to enter a special school. After all, if a weak, but thugs student enters there, the teachers themselves will then suffer with him. Those students who have not been able to enter a special school or have not even enrolled yet can attend special courses and circles for free.
Students are selected for special schools, which, in principle, is unfair. The fact is that to study in such a school requires a special set of qualities, which implies the existence of selection. After all, not everyone is taken to music, art and choreographic schools, this is considered normal. And no one is outraged by the competitive selection of higher educational institutions for the budget. The point of such a competition is to select the most promising applicants who demonstrate their willingness to learn. And let people get higher education at will, but secondary education is compulsory for everyone. Any more or less sane person understands that there are capable children who want to devote an impressive part of their time to the study of some subject, the same physics or chemistry. And there are some children who hardly conquer the school course of mathematics, but perfectly show themselves in creative activities. Both should be given the opportunity to become successful in their area of interest. When it is said that some students receive something to the detriment of the others, then the deliberately false opinion is taken into account that everyone is able to absorb the same amount of educational material, and that this is the same for everyone else.
Children of wealthy parents study in special schools, who will not be lost in life anyway. In fact, the social environment in these schools is quite diverse. So, in the Moscow school "Intellectual" there is a class where several children from large families study at once. Together, the children of famous people, and those who are brought up without a father, comprehend science. There you can also meet children from single-parent families of various incomes, children of doctors, teachers, as well as wealthy entrepreneurs and highly qualified specialists. Most importantly, within the school, they all communicate closely, which could hardly happen anywhere else. For our modern society, in which the stratification is noticeable more and more, this is important. Indeed, for children from poor or just ordinary families, of whom the majority in the country, a special school can become a kind of social lift. Of course, you need to make a lot of effort to get there and study. But even in an ordinary elevator, efforts are required to climb up - you still have to reach the buttons and press them. If you introduce tuition fees, it will become a disaster for many - such an elevator will simply stop working.
It is easy to learn in special schools. To understand the absurdity of such a statement, just look at the schedule. Special schools have a rather large academic load, and there are also additional subjects, special courses, projects. Advanced programs require high-quality and solid student work. Although it is not easy to study here, it is interesting. But strong children are interested in what is difficult. In this regard, the proposal of reformers from education to take payment for additional classes sounds rather strange. Where have you seen that a person also pays extra for his overtime work?
In special schools, teachers are the real idlers, smart children here learn everything themselves. A good teacher will give children tasks that will take into account their abilities, difficult but feasible for the level of thinking. Psychologists call this the zone of proximal development. Keeping strong students in good shape is not easy, here you cannot do with an ordinary textbook and problem book. Also, such children are very critical and simply will not listen to someone who is not in their own authority and trust. If ordinary children will enjoy a simple topic and tasks, where everything is done according to a knurled algorithm, then this is not enough for gifted ones. They don't like trivial and boring assignments; they want challenging and interesting goals. In this case, there is no need to rush, it is necessary to clarify that understanding alone is not enough, because you still need to learn how to practice the relevant skills. Working with gifted children is quite difficult, because they do not like routine, which teachers constantly face. You could even say that teaching ordinary people and the gifted are two different professions.
Smart children will not be lost in a regular school either. Psychology also says that there are several types of giftedness. Students of special schools are usually those who have academic, intellectual or creative talent. This division is actually quite arbitrary, because in one child there can be several types of giftedness. But will such children be able to survive in a regular school?
Academically gifted children are considered those who love and know how to learn. They are usually excellent students in school, a classic example of the child that everyone considers gifted. These children will be successful in an ordinary school, but they will not receive additional knowledge in the end, as well as communication with bright and intelligent peers. Children with two other types of giftedness will have a hard time in an ordinary school, and they themselves are not a gift. Those of the intellectual type like to work independently. These children show independence of thought, they themselves read complex literature. Their academic performance can be absolutely any - from "excellent" to "unsatisfactory". Working with them, the teacher needs to be especially attentive and competent. Creatively gifted children are also quite difficult to learn. After all, their thinking is non-standard, they can fall into a stupor when trying to count the number of cells in a notebook, templates interfere with them, and their social skills are rather poor.
As a result, few people love intellectuals and creative children. After all, they constantly interrupt the teacher, ask strange questions, and stretch their hand when the other children are just trying to understand what is at stake. Such students are distracted and may even read under a desk. As a result, in an ordinary class, such a gifted child will interfere with others, and even the teacher will suffer with him. If special children at the right time do not get into a special environment, then the same will happen to them as to a patient who does not receive the necessary treatment on time. And this is a perfectly appropriate comparison. After all, the World Health Organization has classified gifted children at risk. These little people have difficulty communicating, they have constant nervous excitability, social and psychological adaptation is difficult. Often these children have psychological trauma received in schools where they studied before special institutions. Talents were hounded by classmates or even teachers, and sometimes by both.
Gifted children need special conditions for education and training, they need the help of psychologists. And non-standard students in special schools literally flourish, they find their circle of friends and like-minded friends both among peers and among adults. These children get the opportunity to participate and win at the Olympiads, some of them do good research and creative work. True, sometimes it happens that a child has a talent, but success still does not come. Not everyone knows how to bring things to the end, to realize their ideas. Children can become confused and forgetful, yet enjoy the process, not the result. Such children have the opportunity to complete a full course of study in a special school without winning awards and without bringing fame to their institution. Nevertheless, they successfully acquire knowledge and join society.
Special schools live at the expense of ordinary educational institutions. It should be admitted that, until recently, more money was allocated for special schools than for ordinary schools. But this is justified by the presence of additional work. Indeed, in such institutions and the curriculum is wider, there are also additional profile classes, circles, special courses, small groups. All this work was paid on the same basis as in other schools, it just got more done. So what is unfair in the fact that more money goes to the one who works harder?
The option of cost averaging can be considered on the example of Moscow. There are about a hundred gymnasiums and lyceums in the capital, while there were about two thousand ordinary schools before the merger. On average, special schools received twice as much funding per student than ordinary ones. What happens if you take this money? Funds will be found to finance only 100 secondary schools. If this money is divided by 2000, it turns out that the budget increase will be only 5%. But it is also worth considering the fact that more children study in ordinary schools than in special ones. So there is no reason to expect a sharp rise in well-being, but special schools will cease to exist. What should lyceums do in case of a decrease in funding? Stop deep learning? Start collecting money from students, or get half as much for hours as in a neighboring school with an equal workload? So the option with normative per capita financing is very harmful. And the money that is simply going nowhere in education is much more significant than spending on special schools. Officials should learn to save on themselves, and not on talented children.
It is not true when more money is allocated for one child than for another. We pay taxes on everything, and for these funds someone gets more for education. Not fair? Then it is worth recognizing the very idea of budget education as dishonest, because childless people pay taxes on the education of other people's children. According to this logic, Peter the Great should not have established schools at all, because then the overwhelming minority of the population studied in them. It should be noted that the first educational institutions were just specialized - navigator and military medical. And it was not worth opening universities for the same reason. The state's expenditures on Lomonosov's training were many times higher than the expenditures on other ordinary peasants. Is it worth counting the country's expenses for the release of the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum, which gave Russia Pushkin, Küchelbecker, Gorchakov?
Children are all different and their needs are also not the same. Some people like to play football on the street, while others are drawn to a book and math problems. If for some study is boring, then for someone it brings joy. Is it worth teaching both children the same amount or equally little? Such leveling will lead to the inevitable death of one of them, or both will be infringed on their capabilities. But in different schools this issue is easily solved. Anyone who loves sports goes to a special sports school, or attends special sections in the usual one. The botanist will go to a special school or also devote time to circles. This system worked, so you shouldn't build a system of identical faceless educational institutions. After all, one can go so far that the existence of music schools will be considered unfair in relation to children who are not musically gifted. And the introduction of a new, equalizing system of financing will still lead to the fact that in the end different amounts will be spent on schoolchildren. First of all, because the funding rate depends on the region. When a student comes to school, money is not spent on him personally, but ends up in a common pot. If an educational institution has some profiles and hours above the norm, then it turns out that one child will receive them, and the other will not. Thus, the "injustice" will persist. Only under the old system it was possible to find a school that was suitable in spirit and specialization, but under the new system all schools become the same, where it is not clear whether the child's special talents will develop.
The country does not need schools for the smart at all. It has already been said that such institutions are needed at least for those children who, in an ordinary environment, either receive less knowledge or will be suppressed. However, we must not forget that special schools help ordinary children as well. They are the basis for many projects - summer school, correspondence schools, scientific expeditions, Olympiad, open scientific conferences, project competitions. All this from "schools for the smart" gets into mass education, because there are specialists who know how to organize it. For example, the Intellectual boarding school is just such a resource center. Children from all over the country and even abroad study at her summer school. Conferences, Olympiads and expeditions under the auspices of this institution attract the attention of students from the provinces. Thus, children from the villages of the Kirov region have won the Vyshgorod conference five times, presenting their projects in local history. But for this they had to work hard in expeditions and archives. For many children, this is the only opportunity to join the scientific world.
Now it is worth looking at the problem from the state point of view. Education has two key objectives. First of all, it provides the population with universal literacy, which makes it possible to adequately exist in modern conditions. Also, the elite of society is being brought up, which will provide it with the development and implementation of innovations in the future. It is well known that prestigious universities are very interested in graduates of special schools, because they are motivated, well prepared and focused on further studies and self-training. As a result, it is obvious that special schools make a rather important contribution to the preparation of the scientific and technical foundation of the state. The country should be interested in the emergence of new geniuses of its own, and not in the fact that they turn into losers with a complex of unrealized opportunities. This is exactly what will happen if schools for the smart are destroyed in the course of educational reforms.